Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care – Most Recent



To compare the short- and long-term outcomes of dogs and cats with left-sided congestive heart failure (L-CHF) undergoing positive pressure ventilation (PPV) to patients undergoing PPV for other causes and to determine risk factors associated with outcomes in this population.


This retrospective study included dogs and cats that underwent PPV during 2018–2020. The study group included patients diagnosed with L-CHF. The control group included patients who were ventilated for reasons other than L-CHF. The risk factors evaluated included vital signs on presentation, ventilator settings, development of azotemia during hospitalization, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), complications, and medications used.


University Teaching Hospital.


Fifty (32 dogs, 18 cats) study group animals and 51 (39 dogs, 12 cats) control group animals were included in the L-CHF and control groups, respectively.

Measurements and main results

Sixty-six percent (33/50) of L-CHF patients, compared with 35% (18/51) of the control patients, were weaned off PPV (P = 0.002). Fifty-four percent (27/50) of the L-CHF patients survived to discharge, compared with 26% (13/51) of the control group patients (P = 0.003). However, only 54% (12/22) of the discharged L-CHF patients survived for >2 months compared to 100% of the control patients. The median survival time for dogs and cats with L-CHF surviving to discharge was 240 days (range: 1–730 days). In dogs, factors negatively associated with survival included CPR in both groups and the development of azotemia in the L-CHF group. Anemia on presentation was negatively associated with survival for both cats and dogs in the control group.


Dogs and cats undergoing PPV due to L-CHF were more commonly weaned off the ventilator and survived to discharge compared to other causes necessitating PPV. However, these patients suffer from severe heart disease, and therefore, their long-term survival is guaranteed.

Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, EarlyView.Wiley: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care: Table of Contents

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