To investigate the clinical outcome and complications associated with extracorporeal blood purification (EBP) using either hemodialysis (HD), hemodialysis and hemoperfusion (HD + HP), or therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) for the management of acute toxin ingestion in small animals.
Retrospective, multicenter study from January 2011 to July 2018.
One university teaching hospital and one private specialty hospital.
Fifty-one dogs and 3 cats with a history of acute toxin exposure that could lead to severe morbidity and mortality, managed with different EBP techniques.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (38/54, 52%), baclofen (8/54, 15%), and ethylene glycol (7/54, 13%) were the most common toxicities treated with EBP. Membrane-based TPE was used most commonly (22/54, 40.7%), followed by HD (17/54, 31.5%) and then HD + HP (15/54, 27.8%). There was an 83.3% (45/54) overall survival, with 88.9% (8/9) of nonsurvivors having clinical signs prior to therapy. One third (18/54) of the patients never developed clinical signs of toxicity. Treatment complications occurred in 44.4% (24/54) of the animals, although only 18.5% (10/54) of these complications, such as mild hypotension, thrombocytopenia secondary to the HP cartridge, facial swelling after plasma transfusion for TPE, bleeding from catheter size secondary to heparinization, or clotting of the system, could be attributed to the EBP treatment. None of the nonsurvivors died because of EBP complications.
Early initiation of EBP therapy might be considered as an alternative route of decontamination in severe acute toxicities with high potential for significant morbidity and mortality. The survival rate in small animals undergoing EBP is high despite exposure to potential lethal doses of toxins, and survival appears to be more likely if clinical signs of toxicity are not present at the time of EBP. Continued research is warranted with randomized controlled clinical trials to further evaluate the clinical efficacy and benefit of EBP.
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, EarlyView.Wiley: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care: Table of Contents