To determine the characteristics of canine freeze-dried plasma (cFDP) as it is serially diluted with sterile water.
In vitro experimental study.
Government blood and coagulation research laboratory.
cFDP from a commercial manufacturer.
Ten units of cFDP were reconstituted to 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, 50%, and 40% of the recommended volume with sterile water. The resultant solutions were analyzed for coagulation factor activity (factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, and XII as well as antithrombin), fibrinogen concentration, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, viscosity, osmolality, and kaolin-activated thromboelastography.
Measurements and Main Results
Viscosity, osmolality, and turbidity properties of plasma were increased in a reconstitution volume-dependent manner, with the 40% suggested volume generating approximately 2-fold increases in each. Similarly, factor activity levels and fibrinogen concentration increased by approximately 2-fold over this range in a concentration-dependent manner. Prothrombin time declined from 11.4 seconds at 100% volume to 10.9 seconds at 70% before increasing to 11.9 seconds at 40%. Activated partial thromboplastin time increased exponentially from 21.8 seconds at 100% rehydration to 100.0 seconds at 40%. R-time on TEG increased from 3.1 to 13.9 minutes at 50% rehydration, while alpha angle declined from 61.3° to 24.7° over the same range, and the maximum amplitude initially increased from 13.2 mm at 100% water to 18.6 mm at 70% water before dropping back down to 14.6 mm at 50% water. No clotting was observed with 40% rehydration.
The creation of hyperosmotic plasma from cFDP appears feasible with preservation of concentrated coagulation factors, although there are some unexplained effects that happen to coagulation functions at the highest concentrations tested using only 40%–50% of recommended rehydration volume. Further studies are needed to evaluate the hyperosmotic product in vivo.
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, EarlyView.Wiley: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care: Table of Contents