To describe the successful case management of an extradural hematoma secondary to anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity causing spinal compression and paraplegia.
A 3-month-old, female intact, mixed breed dog was presented for a 12-hour history of paraplegia. CBC and biochemistry results were unremarkable, and a coagulation panel revealed prolonged prothrombin time with normal activated partial thromboplastin time. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extradural compressive lesion within the vertebral canal extending from T6 to T11, most consistent with an extradural hematoma. Further coagulation testing revealed a coagulopathy caused by vitamin K1 deficiency and confirmed exposure to the anticoagulant rodenticide, diphacinone. The dog was medically managed with fresh frozen plasma, aminocaproic acid, and oral vitamin K1 therapy. A right-sided T6 to T11 hemilaminectomy was later performed for removal of the extradural hematoma and spinal decompression. The dog’s neurological status gradually improved postoperatively and, at the time of discharge, was nonambulatory paraparetic with voluntary micturition. Four weeks postoperatively, the dog had normal prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times and was nonambulatory paraparetic with strong motor function.
New or Unique Information Provided
This is the first reported case of a dog with an extradural hematoma secondary to anticoagulant rodenticide causing spinal cord compression and neurological deficits. Surgical management of this case was successful and resulted in improvement of neurological signs. Extradural hematoma should be considered as a potential location of bleeding in rodenticide toxicity as well as a differential diagnosis in patients with neurological deficits.
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, EarlyView.Wiley: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care: Table of Contents