To report the prevalence of arterial hypertension in a population of dogs with nonassociative immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) on presentation and during hospitalization. To determine the relationships of systolic blood pressure (SBP) with mortality and a prognostic indicator, the canine hemolytic anemia objective score.
Retrospective observational study (December 2016 to April 2019).
University teaching hospital.
Twenty-six clinical dogs presenting to the ICU with nonassociative (primary) IMHA and a control group of 23 clinical dogs with idiopathic epilepsy hospitalized in the ICU for seizure treatment or monitoring.
Measurements and Main Results
Hypertension was defined as SBP ≥ 160 mm Hg and severe hypertension as SBP ≥ 180 mm Hg. Mean SBP was significantly increased in IMHA dogs (161 mm Hg, SD = 21) compared to ICU control dogs (138 mm Hg, SD = 14; P < 0.005). Hypertension was present in 13 of 26 (50.0%) dogs across the period of hospitalization and was severe in three of 26 (11.5%). During at least 1 day of hospitalization, 18 of 26 (69.2%) dogs were hypertensive and eight of 26 (34.6%) were severely hypertensive. Hypertension was not associated with short-term mortality or canine hemolytic anemia objective score.
In this retrospective study, hypertension was more prevalent in dogs with nonassociative IMHA than a control population of ICU-hospitalized dogs. An association between autoimmune conditions and hypertension has been previously reported in people but not within a canine population. Hypertension in dogs may have an inflammatory or autoimmune etiology. SBP should be monitored closely in canine IMHA, in case antihypertensive treatment is required.
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, EarlyView.Wiley: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care: Table of Contents