To retrospectively evaluate and stratify the differences in signalment, mechanisms, and severity of injury between toy and giant breed dogs.
Retrospective, observational cohort study.
Multicenter, university veterinary teaching hospital, and private referral hospitals contributing to Veterinary Committee on Trauma (VetCOT) patient registry.
Two thousand seven hundred and five (2589 toy and 116 giant breed) dogs presented for trauma with complete data entries recruited into the Veterinary Committee on Trauma registry from September 1, 2013 through December 31, 2017.
Measurements and Main Results
Injury etiology in toy breeds was predominantly blunt trauma (1532/2587 [59.2%]), commonly falling from a height or motor vehicle accident, whereas in giant breeds penetrating trauma was more common (71/116 [61.2%]). Eighty-seven percent (2231/2558) of toy breeds and 94.7% (108/114) giant breeds survived to discharge. When stratified by severity of injury (animal trauma triage [ATT] ≥ 5), mortality increased. Severely injured toy breeds had a 45.6% (200/438) survival rate, and severely injured giant breeds had a 62.5% (5/8) survival rate. Patient size did not impact survival in a logistic regression model; however, ATT score (odd ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.52–0.58; P < 0.001), modified Glasgow Coma Scale (mGCS; odds ratio, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.11–1.32; P < 0.001), and base excess (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09–1.22; P < 0.001) were predictive of nonsurvival. Surgical intervention was required in 743 of 2587 (29%) toy breeds and 65 of 116 (56%) giant breeds. Surgery was associated with an increased survival rate (odds ratio, 4.43; 95% CI, 2.45–8.83; P < 0.0001).
Evaluation of a large, multicenter dataset showed that ATT score along with base excess, plasma lactate, and mGCS were predictors of mortality independent of patient size. Severely injured dogs, as defined by an ATT score ≥ 5, were less likely to survive, and toy breed dogs had a higher mortality rate than giant breeds in the subcategory.
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, EarlyView.Wiley: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care: Table of Contents