Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care – Most Recent



To investigate the effects of a fixed dose of atipamezole (AT), flumazenil (FL), and 4-aminopyridine (AP), both alone and in combination, on changes in arterial blood pressure and heart rate induced by medetomidine (ME), midazolam (MI), and ketamine (KE) under isoflurane anesthesia with controlled ventilation in healthy cats.


Prospective experimental study.


University animal research facility.


Healthy adult mixed-breed cats were used for 8 investigation groups (6 cats per group), with ≥2 weeks between interventions.


Cats were anesthetized with an end-tidal isoflurane concentration of 2% under controlled ventilation. A catheter was inserted into the right or left femoral artery for arterial pressure monitoring and blood gas sampling, and ECG electrodes were placed. Upon completed preparations, cats were administered a mixture of ME (0.05 mg/kg) and MI (0.5 mg/kg), followed 10 minutes later by intramuscular KE (10 mg/kg). Twenty minutes after KE injection, the cats received IV injection with either a physiological saline solution at 0.1 mL/kg (control), or 1 of 7 variations of experimental drugs, alone or in combination: AT (0.2 mg/kg), FL (0.1 mg/kg), AP (0.5 mg/kg), AT+FL, FL+AP, AT+AP, and AT+FL+AP. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate were continuously measured over 120 minutes after administration of potential antagonists.

Measurements and Main Results

ME+MI+KE induced an increase in blood pressure and bradycardia. Potential antagonists alone or in combination did not significantly alter the bradycardia. FL, AP alone, and FL+AP did not significantly alter the changes in blood pressures induced by ME+MI+KE. Meanwhile, administration of AT alone or in combination reversed the increase in blood pressure induced by ME+MI+KE but transiently caused excessive hypotension.


These results revealed that AT alone or in combination is effective for antagonizing hypertension induced by ME+MI+KE; however, attention should be paid to temporary hypotension in cats anesthetized with isoflurane.

Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, EarlyView.Wiley: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care: Table of Contents

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