Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care – Most Recent



To determine whether basal-bolus administration of glargine insulin is a safe and effective alternative treatment compared to the standard continuous rate infusion (CRI) protocol.


Prospective randomized clinical trial.


University teaching hospital.


Twenty cats diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).


The cats were block-randomized to either a CRI protocol using regular insulin (CRI-group; n = 10) or a basal-bolus SC and IM glargine protocol (glargine-group, n = 10). Baseline blood gases, electrolytes, glucose, and β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) concentrations were measured at the time of admission and later at predefined intervals until reaching the primary endpoint of the study, defined as a β-hydroxybutyrate concentration < 2.55 mmol/L.

Measurements and main results

The main outcome measure was time (h) to resolution of ketonemia. Secondary outcome measures were time until first improvement of hyperglycemia and ketonemia, decrease of glucose to ≤13.9 mmol/L (250 mg/dL), resolution of acidosis, consumption of first meal, and discharge from hospital. Additionally, occurrence of treatment-associated adverse events and death were compared. Seventeen cats (85%) survived to discharge, with no difference in survival between groups (P = 1.0). Median times to β-OHB < 2.55 mmol/L were 42 (CRI-group) and 30 (glargine-group) hours, respectively (P = 0.114). Median times to first improvement of hyperglycemia (glargine-group: 2 h; CRI-group: 6 h; P = 0.018) and until discharge from hospital (glargine-group: 140 h; CRI-group: 174 h; P = 0.033) were significantly shorter in the glargine-group. No significant differences were observed in any other parameter under investigation (P > 0.05).


Basal-bolus administration of glargine insulin appears to be an effective and safe alternative to the current standard CRI-protocol for the management of DKA in cats. The positive outcomes and simplicity make it a viable option for the treatment of feline DKA.

Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, Volume 31, Issue 4, Page 459-468, July/August 2021.Wiley: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care: Table of Contents

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