Evaluation of coagulation parameters in dogs with gallbladder mucoceles



Gallbladder mucocele (GBM) is a common biliary disorder in dogs. Limited information is available on the coagulation status of dogs with GBM.


To determine patterns of coagulation alterations in dogs with GBM and correlate them with clinicopathologic abnormalities and ultrasonographic findings of disease severity.


Twenty-three dogs with GBM identified on ultrasound examination were prospectively enrolled.


At the time of GBM identification, blood and urine were collected for CBC, serum biochemical panel, urinalysis, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), factor VIII, protein C (PC), von Willebrand’s factor (vWF), antithrombin activity, fibrinogen, D-dimers, and thromboelastrography (TEG). Gallbladder mucoceles were classified into ultrasound types 1 to 5. Medical records were reviewed for clinical presentation, underlying conditions and to determine if systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was present.


Based on TEG parameters, maximal amplitude, and G, 19/23 (83%) of dogs with GBM had evaluations consistent with hypercoagulability. On plasma-based coagulation testing, dogs with GBM had increased total PC activity (20/23, 87%), fibrinogen (9/23, 39%), platelet count (9/23, 39%), and D-dimers (6/15, 40%) as well as prolongations in aPTT (9/22, 41%) and low vWF activity (5/21, 24%). No correlation was found between TEG G value and any coagulation or clinical pathology variables, ultrasound stage of GBM or disease severity as assessed by the presence of SIRS.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Dogs with ultrasonographically identified GBM have changes in whole blood kaolin-activated TEG supporting a hypercoagulable state although traditional plasma-based coagulation testing suggests that a complex state of hemostasis exists.

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